If you’ve read up on the reported benefits of CBD, you might have noticed experts talking about the endocannabinoid system. Also known as the ECS, it plays a pivotal role in the way your body functions and – according to studies – the therapeutic effects CBD is believed to offer.
But, what is the endocannabinoid system? And how does it actually work?
Discovered in the early nineties, the human endocannabinoid system is responsible for intercellular communication in our bodies. Put simply, it sends soothing signals between cells, helping to maintain the balance between different biological functions – also known as homeostasis.
While there’s still much to be researched and revealed about the influence of the ECS, scientists found that it’s closely associated with the body’s self regulating processes. For example, research suggests it can have an effect on the control of metabolism, appetite, pain response, motor coordination, stress – and so much more. The ECS is one of the most extensive biological systems of receptors in the body, meaning it handles many functions necessary for survival.
Now you know what the endocannabinoid system is, and who has one, it’s important to understand how it has such a big impact on various functions in the body. There are three key components that make up the system: cannabinoids, receptors and enzymes. Here’s how each of them ‘unlocks’ homeostasis…
Around the same time scientists first discovered the endocannabinoid system, they also uncovered a naturally-occurring cannabinoid called anandamide. Known as the ‘bliss molecule’, it’s responsible for the ‘high’ that you feel after exercise and meditation, amongst a number of other cognitive processes, like mood control.
Shortly after, another cannabinoid named 2-AG was revealed. This is the most prevalent in the body, responsible for managing appetite, pain response and immune system functions. Anandamide and 2-AG are endogenous cannabinoids (or endocannabinoids), meaning they’re produced internally by the body – often in response to physiological imbalances in the body.
Think of cannabinoids as keys, and receptors as the padlocks they slot into. These locks are found all throughout the body, in the nervous system, glands, immune cells, organs, brain and connective tissue.
When a key (or a cannabinoid) fits a padlock, it causes a reaction in the body. For example, when anandamide binds to a receptor, a blissful state may kick in. There are two main types of cannabinoid receptors in the body. First, you have CB1, which exists in the brain and spinal cord, working to regulate appetite and memory, and to reduce pain.
Then there’s CB2, which is distributed in the immune system. Its primary goal is to reduce inflammation throughout the body. When your ECS is working correctly, it will produce the endocannabinoids you need when you need them, directing them to the correct CB1 or CB2 receptor for homeostasis.
Finally, enzymes are present in the endocannabinoid system to synthesise and recycle used endocannabinoids after the body is through with them.
There are two main degrading enzymes: fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which breaks down anandamide, and monoacylglycerol acid lipase, which typically breaks down 2-AG.
Meanwhile, anandamide is synthesised mainly by the sequential action of N-acyltransferase (NAT) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine- specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). 2-AG is synthesised by diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL).
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